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# Key Stage 1

__Overview of Key Stage 1 – Years 1 and 2__

The principal focus of Mathematics teaching in Key Stage 1 is to ensure that pupils develop confidence and fluency when counting and calculating using whole numbers. This should be based on a secure understanding of place value and the number system. Pupils will encounter mathematical problems expressed in both numerals and words, involving all four operations; addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. All pupils will be encouraged to use practical resources to support their learning.

At this stage, pupils will develop their ability to recognise, describe, draw, compare and sort different shapes and use the related vocabulary. Pupils will use a range of measures to describe and compare different quantities such as length, mass, capacity/volume, time and money.

Pupils should read and spell mathematical vocabulary, at a level consistent with their increasing word reading and spelling knowledge at Key Stage 1.

**Year 1 Programme of Study: Statutory Requirements**

__Number and Place Value__

Pupils will be taught to:

- count to and across 100, forwards and backwards, beginning with 0 or 1, or from any given number
- count, read and write numbers to 100 in numerals; count in multiples of twos, fives and tens
- given a number, identify one more and one less
- identify and represent numbers using objects and pictorial representations including the number line, and use the language of:
*equal to, more than, less than, fewer, most, least* - read and write number from 1 to 20 in numerals and words.

__Addition and Subtraction__

Pupils will be taught to:

- read, write and interpret mathematical statements involving addition (+), subtraction (-), and equals (=) signs

- represent and use number bonds and related subtraction facts within 20
- add and subtract one-digit and two-digit numbers to 20, including zero
- solve one-step problems that involve addition and subtraction, using concrete objects and pictorial representation, and missing number problems such as 7 = - 9.

__Multiplication and Division __

Pupils will be taught to:

- solve one-step problems involving multiplication and division, by calculating the answer using concrete objects, pictorial representations and arrays with the support of the teacher.

__Fractions__

Pupils will be taught to:

- recognise, find and name a half as one of two equal parts of an object, shape or quantity
- recognise, find and name a quarter as one of four equal parts of an object, shape or quantity.

__Measurement__

Pupils will be taught to:

- compare, describe and solve practical problems for:
- lengths and heights (for example:
*long/short, longer/shorter, tall/short, double/half*) - mass/weight (for example:
*heavy/light, heavier than, lighter than*) - capacity and volume (for example:
*full/empty, more than, less than, half, half full, quarter*) - time (for example:
*quicker, slower, earlier, later*)

- lengths and heights (for example:
- measure and begin to record the following:
- lengths and heights
- mass/weight
- capacity and volume
- time (
*hours, minutes, seconds*)

- recognise and know the value of different denominations of coins and notes
- sequence events in chronological order using language (for example:
*before,**after, next, first, today, yesterday, tomorrow, morning, afternoon*,*evening*) - recognise and use language relating to dates, including days of the week, weeks, months and years
- tell the time to the hour and half past the hour and draw the hands on a clock face to show these times.

__Geometry - Shape__

Pupils will be taught to:

- recognise and name common 2-D and 3-D shapes, including:
- 2-D shapes (for example:
*rectangles*(including*squares*),*circles*and*triangles*) - 3-D shapes (for example:
*cuboids*(including*cubes*),*pyramids*and*spheres*).

- 2-D shapes (for example:

__Geometry – Position and Direction__

Pupils will be taught to:

- describe position, direction and movement, including whole, half, quarter and three-quarter turns.

**Year 2 Programme of Study: Statutory Requirements**

__Number and Place Value__

Pupils will be taught to:

- count in steps of 2, 3, and 5 from 0, and in tens from any number, forward and backward
- recognise the place value of each digit in a two-digit number (
*tens, ones*) - identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations, including the number line
- compare and order numbers from 0 up to 100; use <, > and = signs
- read and write numbers to at least 100 in numerals and in words
- use place value and number facts to solve problems.

__Addition and Subtraction__

Pupils will be taught to:

- solve problems with addition and subtraction:
- using concrete objects and pictorial representations, including those involving numbers, quantities and measures
- applying their increasing knowledge of mental and written methods

- recall and use addition and subtraction facts to 20 fluently, and derive and use related facts up to 100
- add and subtract numbers using concrete objects, pictorial representations, and mentally, including:
- a two-digit number and ones
- a two-digit number and tens
- two two-digit numbers
- adding three one-digit numbers

- show that addition of two numbers can be done in any order (commutative) and subtraction of one number from another cannot
- recognise and use the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction and use this to check calculations and solve missing number problems.

__Multiplication and Division __

Pupils will be taught to:

- recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 2, 5 and 10 multiplication tables, including recognising odd and even numbers
- calculate mathematical statements for multiplication and division within the multiplication tables and write them using the multiplication (×), division (÷) and equals (=) signs
- show that multiplication of two numbers can be done in any order (commutative) and division of one number by another cannot
- solve problems involving multiplication and division, using materials, arrays, repeated addition, mental methods, and multiplication and division facts, including problems in contexts.

__Fractions__

Pupils will be taught to:

- recognise, find, name and write fractions
^{1}/_{3}, ¼,^{2}/_{4}and ¾ of a length, shape, set of objects or quantity - write simple fractions for example, ½ of 6 = 3 and recognise the equivalence of 2/4 and ½ .

__Measurement__

Pupils will be taught to:

- choose and use appropriate standard units to estimate and measure length/height in any direction (m/cm); mass (kg/g); temperature (°C); capacity (litres/ml) to the nearest appropriate unit, using rulers, scales, thermometers and measuring vessels
- compare and order lengths, mass, volume/capacity and record the results using >, < and =
- recognise and use symbols for pounds (£) and pence (p); combine amounts to make a particular value
- find different combinations of coins that equal the same amounts of money
- solve simple problems in a practical context involving addition and subtraction of money of the same unit, including giving change
- compare and sequence intervals of time
- tell and write the time to five minutes, including quarter past/to the hour and draw the hands on a clock face to show these times
- know the number of minutes in an hour and the number of hours in a day.

__Geometry - Shape__

Pupils will be taught to:

- identify and describe the properties of 2-D shapes, including the number of sides and line symmetry in a vertical line
- identify and describe the properties of 3-D shapes, including the number of edges, vertices and faces
- identify 2-D shapes on the surface of 3-D shapes, (for example: a circle on a cylinder and a triangle on a pyramid)
- compare and sort common 2-D and 3-D shapes and everyday objects.

__Geometry – Position and Direction__

Pupils will be taught to:

- order and arrange combinations of mathematical objects in patterns and sequences
- use mathematical vocabulary to describe position, direction and movement, including movement in a straight line and distinguishing between rotation as a turn and in terms of right angles for quarter, half and three-quarter turns (clockwise and anti-clockwise).

__Statistics__

Pupils will be taught to:

- interpret and construct simple pictograms, tally charts, block diagrams and simple tables
- ask and answer simple questions by counting the number of objects in each category and sorting the categories by quantity
- ask and answer questions about totalling and comparing categorical data.